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Operation and Maintenance Costs for Chlorination

Aug 6, 2020 5:15:00 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, drinking water, chlorination, gas feed

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Chlorine is commonly available in three different forms: gaseous chlorine, calcium hypochlorite, and sodium hypochlorite, which are all used in chlorination.

Gas chlorine is typically packaged in 150 lb cylinders and 1-ton containers. This is 100% elemental chlorine stored as a liquified gas under pressure. The chlorine is fed to the process using a pressure feed system which applies the chlorine gas directly to the process or a vacuum operated - solution feed system which uses a water operated ejector to create a chlorine solution which is applied to the process.

Calcium hypochlorite is typically packaged as a solid tablet containing 60% active chlorine. The chlorine is fed to the process using a simple tablet feeder that passes the process water through a tube of tablets, causing the tablets to dissolve into the water. More sophisticated tablet systems dissolve the tablets in water making a solution of controlled chlorine concentration, which is then fed to the process using a chemical dosing pump.

Sodium hypochlorite is a liquid containing 12-15% active chlorine when fresh. Sodium hypochlorite is typically delivered to plant storage tanks by truck and applied to the process using chemical dosing pumps. With this form of chlorine, the concentration decays over time.

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Chesapeake Bay Community Meets Space and Budget Requirements with New Arsenic Removal System

Aug 4, 2020 10:15:00 AM / by De Nora posted in arsenic, SORB, chesapeake ranch water company, lusby

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Caring for our community

Our Chesapeake Ranch Water Company (CRWC) owns and operates the potable-drinking-water system and fire protection for approximately 4,000 homes and businesses over five-square miles in scenic Lusby, Maryland. This community system supplies water to nearly 10,000 residents of Chesapeake Ranch Estates and an adjacent small retail section.

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Application Spotlight: Produced Water Treatment & Recycling

Jul 30, 2020 12:19:00 PM / by De Nora posted in De Nora, Clortec, Fracturing, oilfield

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Though freshwater has traditionally been the primary vehicle for hydraulic fracturing well completion, a variety of stressors are driving exploration and production (E&P) companies to increase their use of produced water. These stressors include freshwater availability and use in E&P operations, increased costs associated with the acquisition of fresh water, and the costs and regulatory limits on the disposal of produced water.

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Product Spotlight: The De Nora SORB 33® Arsenic Removal System

Jul 28, 2020 8:30:00 AM / by De Nora posted in arsenic, SORB, Bayoxide

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There are various options available for Arsenic Removal ranging from ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, coagulation/filtration, and, of course, adsorption. Today, we are going to walk you through the details of one of our favorite adsorption products, the SORB 33®. 

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Oxidative Treatment of Produced Water with Sodium Hypochlorite

Jul 21, 2020 10:15:00 AM / by De Nora posted in De Nora, ground water, Fracturing, produced water

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As exploration and production (E&P) companies continue to focus on improving the efficiency of water usage and disposal operations, operators are looking for opportunities to inexpensively treat produced water, as well as improve the use of treated-produced water for drilling and well completion activities.

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Chloramination Control in Drinking Water

Jul 16, 2020 12:45:00 PM / by De Nora posted in drinking water, CAPTROL Controller, gas feed

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What is chloramination?

Chloramination is a secondary disinfection process by which chlorine (Cl2) and ammonia (NH3) are combined to produce chloramines, a persistent disinfectant used to maintain a residual in a long distribution system . The residual chloramine aids in preventing post microbial growth in the distribution system.

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Application Spotlight: Injection Wells

Jul 15, 2020 6:17:42 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, oil and gas, oilfield, produced water

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Injection wells and drilling can be a quite confusing subject for those who are unfamiliar with oilfield operations. This short application spotlight is intended to provide readers with a brief overview of the terminology and processes associated with this subject.

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Case Study: Optimizing Arsenic Treatment System Yields Significant Cost Savings

Jul 14, 2020 3:00:00 PM / by De Nora posted in arsenic, wastewater treatment, coagulation filtration, SORB, Arizona American Water, American Water, Surprize AZ, Bayoxide

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According to the company’s website, American Water (AW) has been maintaining high-water-quality standards, dependable service, and finding ways to do it better since 1986. The country’s largest investor-owned water and wastewater utility company, AW serves the needs of 16 million customers in more than 1,600 communities across the United States. Arizona American Water, a wholly-owned subsidiary of America Water, is the largest investor-owned utility in Arizona, serving a population of approximately 350,000 in northwest Phoenix. 

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Efficacy of Ozone to Reduce Chlorinated Disinfection By-Products

Jun 30, 2020 11:00:00 AM / by De Nora posted in ozone, total trihalomethanes, chlorine demand, natural organic matter, haloacetic acids

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The scientific journal Ozone Science and Engineering published an article entitled: Efficacy of Ozone to Reduce Chlorinated Disinfection By-Products in Quebec (Canada) Drinking Water Facilities, authored by Ladji Meite; Macellin Fotsing and Benoit Barbeau. The following post is a summary of that article.

The impact of ozonation on the reduction of chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation was investigated in 15 full-scale Quebec’s WTPs using ozonation as part of their treatment.

The most common locations for the ozonation process were respectively post-ozonation (9), intermediate ozonation (3), and pre-ozonation (3).

Sampling campaigns were replicated for each WTP in warm waters (June–August) as well as cold waters (November–April). Samples were collected before and after full-scale ozonation and were chlorinated in the laboratory to perform DBPs measurements under uniform formation conditions (UFC) tests. A lab-scale ozonation was also performed on each sample to standardize ozonation conditions of all investigated waters. As part of the research, total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and the sum of six haloacetic acids (HAA6) were measured after chlorination 

In full-scale ozonation conditions, TTHM-UFC and HAA6-UFC reductions averaged respectively 27 and 32%. 

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Reducing GAC Consumption with Ozone Article By Tony Sacco, Spartan Technologies

Jun 23, 2020 2:45:00 PM / by De Nora posted in wastewater treatment, biodiesel, biodiesel byproducts, GAC

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Biodiesel is created through a transesterification reaction, a process in which vegetable oil is reacted in excess of methyl alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. 

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