On offshore Oil & Gas production and extraction facilities, the sewage treatment system often manages an enormous amount of raw wastewater, i.e., …human sewage. The untreatable or separated wastes from these systems are commonly referred to as “screened or filtered raw biomass”, or, “wet waste sludge.”
There are various options available for removing arsenic from groundwater; these processes range from ion exchange and activated alumina to reverse osmosis, coagulation and filtration. Each of these technologies have their own pros and cons, but in cases where arsenic treatment is the main treatment objective, adsorption is the ideal technology from a cost and ease of operation standpoint.
With longer laterals being drilled and stages being added, well completion by hydraulic fracturing (frac) now requires an ever-increasing amount of water for every well that is drilled and completed. Ensuring that the water used in frac is free of bacteria is a critical part of the overall treatment and conditioning of water before it is sent downhole. This is especially true as more operators are using recycled flowback and produced water for completion activities.
Arsenic occurs naturally and is found in rocks and soil before being released into water supplies through erosion. Certain industrial practices, such as the production of paints and dyes, metals, soaps, drugs and wood preservatives, have the potential for releasing arsenic into the environment as a byproduct of the process.
The safe handling of chlorine gas and a secure chlorination system includes a proper facilities design, an operation and maintenance program, the appropriate safety equipment and an emergency action plan. The following, while not all-encompassing, will cover the chemical and physical characteristics of chlorine, as well as the many safety steps and procedures that must be followed to keep your facility safe.
Oilfield bacteria are present everywhere water can be found in the hydrocarbon production process. Unchecked bacteria populations can result in operational issues through the upstream and midstream production environment. Starting at the producing formation itself, bacteria introduced into the formation during drilling, completion, or flooding can result in the plugging of the formation as well as the wellbore.
Chlorine is commonly available in three different forms: gaseous chlorine, calcium hypochlorite, and sodium hypochlorite, which are all used in chlorination.
Gas chlorine is typically packaged in 150 lb cylinders and 1-ton containers. This is 100% elemental chlorine stored as a liquified gas under pressure. The chlorine is fed to the process using a pressure feed system which applies the chlorine gas directly to the process or a vacuum operated - solution feed system which uses a water operated ejector to create a chlorine solution which is applied to the process.
Calcium hypochlorite is typically packaged as a solid tablet containing 60% active chlorine. The chlorine is fed to the process using a simple tablet feeder that passes the process water through a tube of tablets, causing the tablets to dissolve into the water. More sophisticated tablet systems dissolve the tablets in water making a solution of controlled chlorine concentration, which is then fed to the process using a chemical dosing pump.
Sodium hypochlorite is a liquid containing 12-15% active chlorine when fresh. Sodium hypochlorite is typically delivered to plant storage tanks by truck and applied to the process using chemical dosing pumps. With this form of chlorine, the concentration decays over time.
Caring for our community
Our Chesapeake Ranch Water Company (CRWC) owns and operates the potable-drinking-water system and fire protection for approximately 4,000 homes and businesses over five-square miles in scenic Lusby, Maryland. This community system supplies water to nearly 10,000 residents of Chesapeake Ranch Estates and an adjacent small retail section.
Though freshwater has traditionally been the primary vehicle for hydraulic fracturing well completion, a variety of stressors are driving exploration and production (E&P) companies to increase their use of produced water. These stressors include freshwater availability and use in E&P operations, increased costs associated with the acquisition of fresh water, and the costs and regulatory limits on the disposal of produced water.
There are various options available for Arsenic Removal ranging from ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, coagulation/filtration, and, of course, adsorption. Today, we are going to walk you through the details of one of our favorite adsorption products, the SORB 33®.