Though freshwater has traditionally been the primary vehicle for hydraulic fracturing well completion, a variety of stressors are driving exploration and production (E&P) companies to increase their use of produced water. These stressors include freshwater availability and use in E&P operations, increased costs associated with the acquisition of fresh water, and the costs and regulatory limits on the disposal of produced water.
In today’s credit-crunched, bottom-line-oriented economic environment, utilities in the water and wastewater sectors are scrapping plans to replace old equipment with new technologies and are looking for ways to improve existing equipment performance with system upgrades.
As exploration and production (E&P) companies continue to focus on improving the efficiency of water usage and disposal operations, operators are looking for opportunities to inexpensively treat produced water, as well as improve the use of treated-produced water for drilling and well completion activities.
Since chlorine technology was first used in the US to disinfect drinking water in Jersey City, NJ, in 1908, most waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the U.S. Chlorine is still the most common disinfectant for drinking water and wastewater. Chlorine is also used for disinfection and as a biocide in numerous industries.