The De Nora blog: Water Made Easy

Operation and Maintenance Costs for Chlorination

Aug 6, 2020 5:15:00 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, drinking water, chlorination, gas feed

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Chlorine is commonly available in three different forms: gaseous chlorine, calcium hypochlorite, and sodium hypochlorite, which are all used in chlorination.

Gas chlorine is typically packaged in 150 lb cylinders and 1-ton containers. This is 100% elemental chlorine stored as a liquified gas under pressure. The chlorine is fed to the process using a pressure feed system which applies the chlorine gas directly to the process or a vacuum operated - solution feed system which uses a water operated ejector to create a chlorine solution which is applied to the process.

Calcium hypochlorite is typically packaged as a solid tablet containing 60% active chlorine. The chlorine is fed to the process using a simple tablet feeder that passes the process water through a tube of tablets, causing the tablets to dissolve into the water. More sophisticated tablet systems dissolve the tablets in water making a solution of controlled chlorine concentration, which is then fed to the process using a chemical dosing pump.

Sodium hypochlorite is a liquid containing 12-15% active chlorine when fresh. Sodium hypochlorite is typically delivered to plant storage tanks by truck and applied to the process using chemical dosing pumps. With this form of chlorine, the concentration decays over time.

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How to Prolong the Life of Your Gas Chlorinator

Jul 23, 2020 8:38:00 AM / by Stanley Shima posted in water treatment, De Nora, chlorination, gas feed, chlorine gas

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In today’s credit-crunched, bottom-line-oriented economic environment, utilities in the water and wastewater sectors are scrapping plans to replace old equipment with new technologies and are looking for ways to improve existing equipment performance with system upgrades. 

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Application Spotlight: Injection Wells

Jul 15, 2020 6:17:42 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, oil and gas, oilfield, produced water

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Injection wells and drilling can be a quite confusing subject for those who are unfamiliar with oilfield operations. This short application spotlight is intended to provide readers with a brief overview of the terminology and processes associated with this subject.

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Ozone Fundamentals for Water Treatment

Jun 8, 2020 3:06:56 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, ozone, ozone safety

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Ozone is commonly used in the treatment of drinking water, but not everyone understands what it is, how it’s used, or the benefits and risks associated with it. We created this blog post to provide a brief introduction to Ozone.

How is Ozone Used for Water Treatment?

Ozone is among the most powerful oxidizing agents known to exist. For this reason, it is often used to compliment chlorine disinfection of drinking water. By using ozone, utilities can limit or avoid the use of chlorine if there’s a concern about dangerous byproduct formation. Once introduced to the treatment process, ozone can safely eliminate a wide range of organic compounds and microorganisms.

Stand-alone ozone effectively treats non-biodegradable contaminants, including micropollutants which are substantially untreated through the conventional activated sludge process. Ozone also treats groundwater that has been polluted by metals, like iron and manganese and inorganics, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), that are easily oxidated by O3. Ozone can also be used to remove unwanted colors, smells, and flavors from the water.

What is Ozone? 

Ozone is an allotrope of oxygen (different structural modifications of the same element). There
are two main allotropes of oxygen: a diatomic molecule that is made up of two oxygen atoms,
oxygen or dioxygen (O2), and a triatomic molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen, ozone
(O3 ).

Triatomic oxygen (ozone, O3), is an inorganic molecule. As a gas it is pale blue in color with a distinctively pungent smell. This very reactive allotrope is destructive to materials like rubber and fabrics and is also damaging to lung tissue. Traces of it can be detected as a sharp, chlorine-like smell, coming from electric motors, laser printers and photocopiers. It is also the strange odor a person would smell after a thunderstorm.

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Mixed Oxidant Solution: Frequently Asked Questions

May 12, 2020 4:08:00 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, sodium hypochlorite, MOS, mixed oxidant solution, biofilm, electrochlorination

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There are many jobs and responsibilities in the field of water treatment. For many, knowing exactly what chemicals or procedures are used in the filtration process is not necessary. However, for those considering on-site water treatment understanding the makeup and uses of chemicals and their components is a vital step in the decision-making process. 

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On-Site With Sodium Hypochlorite Generation

May 5, 2020 11:21:00 AM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, Clortec, sodium hypochlorite, chlorination

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Chlorine has long been a reliable tool in the water and wastewater treatment industry. It is one of the most widely-utilized chemicals in the space, and as such, there is no shortage of solutions for obtaining and applying it.

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Capital Controls® Ozone Generation: Advanced Oxidation for Industrial Water Treatment

Apr 6, 2020 7:15:00 AM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, ozone, wastewater treatment

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Why Ozone?

A powerful oxidant with fast reaction time, no added chemicals, and the ability to reduce disinfection byproducts, ozone is an appealing and growing option for the treatment of water and wastewater treatment in industrial settings. 

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On-site But Out of Mind — Getting Extra Mileage Out of Your OSHG System

Apr 2, 2020 4:19:45 PM / by De Nora posted in water treatment, wastewater treatment, OSHG, on-site sodium hypochlorite generation, OSHG system maintenance

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As concerns mount regarding the safety and security of using chlorine gas for water disinfection, the use of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) to create oxidants for water and wastewater treatment has quickly become considered the safer alternative.

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An Award-Winning 2018 Plant Expansion Increases Water Treatment Capacity in Growing Maricopa County, AZ

Mar 31, 2020 4:15:00 PM / by Robert Andrews posted in water treatment, Clortec, sodium hypochlorite, Maricopa County, Phoenix AZ, Arizona Water Association, OSHG

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The beginning of a growing need

Over a decade ago, two of the fastest-growing communities in the United States were forced to make some big decisions. Just southeast of Phoenix in Maricopa County, AZ, the adjacent neighborhoods of Gilbert and Chandler realized that they were not prepared to meet the needs of their growing communities. Knowing that they would need to take action quickly, these suburbs decided to join forces to address what was obviously their most significant concern — water.

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